16 June 2022

Rejuvenating lysosomes

A research team from Baylor College of Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute found that roundworm lysosomes produce molecules that transmit information about aging to cells, coordinating the process throughout the body.

Problems related to life extension

In a 2019 UN report, scientists have suggested that by 2050 the number of people over 65 worldwide will increase to 1.5 billion. And aging is known to be accompanied by an increased risk of age-related diseases.

It has been known for more than 50 years that proteins, lipids and other molecules tend to accumulate in old cells. Since lysosomes are the place of disposal of cell waste products, researchers study them in more detail, suspecting a connection with aging.

The head of the study, Professor Meng Wang, has been studying the relationship between longevity and signaling molecules produced by lysosomes for the past seven years. It has already been proven that lysosomes serve as a platform that the cell uses to send messages about its condition, glucose levels and stress.

From one cell to another

The new study was conducted in vivo on C.elegans roundworms. It was found that one of the polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acids produced by lysosomes, digomo-γ-linolenic acid, triggers a number of cellular signals that ultimately prolong life. The experimental inclusion of this cascade of fatty acids led to an increase in the life expectancy of worms to 20-25 days (the normal life expectancy is 17 days).

It is important to note that the signaling molecule was generated in fat cells, and was picked up by neurons in other parts of the worms' body. This means that lysosomes produce signals that cells use to regulate lifespan in various tissues.

Thus, lysosomes are the trigger center of the signaling pathway for the coordination of metabolism and aging, and lysosomal signaling mediates interstitial communication, which contributes to longevity. Meng Wang and her colleagues are looking for other molecules produced by lysosomes that can act as anti-aging signals.

Article by M.Savini et al. Lysosome lipid signaling from the periphery to neurons regulates longevity is published in the journal Nature Cell Biology.

Aminat Adzhieva, portal "Eternal Youth" http://vechnayamolodost.ru based on Baylor College of Medicine: Anti-aging clues lurk in lysosomes, the recycling centers of the cell.

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