12 December 2012

Prostaglandin E2 accelerates bone marrow recovery

Researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center, working under the guidance of Dr. Laura M. Calvi, state that prostaglandin E2 (a model of its molecule is shown in the figure) stimulates the production of blood cells in patients whose bone marrow was damaged during chemo and/or radiotherapy.

Despite the fact that the experiments were conducted on mice, the authors hope that their results will help a large number of patients in the future.

The bone marrow is the "home" for most hematopoietic cells, in which they divide, differentiate and mature. Mass death and suppression of activity (myelosuppression) of these cells is a side effect of cancer treatment and is manifested by anemia and immunodeficiency, which pose a serious threat to the lives of patients. In some cases, this problem is solved by transplantation of own (autologous) hematopoietic cells previously frozen in liquid nitrogen. However, even after transplantation, the restoration of bone marrow activity takes time, since chemo- and radiotherapy destroys the cells of the bone marrow microenvironment that support the vital activity and functioning of hematopoietic cells.

The authors demonstrated that the administration of prostaglandin E2 to mice subjected to the procedure of total irradiation with a sublethal dose of radioactive radiation accelerates the process of bone marrow recovery.

Prostaglandins are hormone–like substances, the most important physiological effect of which is the ability to cause smooth muscle contraction. Prostaglandins reduce platelet aggregation, gastric juice secretion, affect secretion, blood circulation, have a contraceptive effect, activate the central nervous system and, among other things, mediate the development of inflammatory reactions, including in response to the effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, after which the level of prostaglandin E2 in the body remains elevated for about 6 days. During this period, the bone marrow begins to slowly recover on its own. However, researchers have shown that the introduction of a long–acting synthetic analogue of this hormone – dimethylprostaglandin E (dmPGE2) - additionally stimulates the process of restoring hematopoietic function through several mechanisms.

Firstly, it suppresses apoptotic cell death associated with the cytotoxic effect of therapy without reducing their ability to differentiate. Secondly, it promotes the restoration of the bone marrow microenvironment, which, in turn, accelerates the restoration of the number of hematopoietic cells and the hematopoietic function of the bone marrow.

The authors have already applied for a patent describing the method of using prostaglandin E2 to stimulate the restoration of hematopoietic cells in the USA and Europe.

Article by Rebecca L. Porter et al. Prostaglandin E2 Increases Hematopoietic Stem Cell Survival and Accelerates Hematopoietic Recovery after Radiation Injury published in the journal Stem cells.

Evgeniya Ryabtseva
Portal "Eternal youth" http://vechnayamolodost.ru based on the materials of the University of Rochester Medical Center:
Studying Marrow, URMC Researchers Accelerate Blood Stem Cells.


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