11 July 2008

Chemistry Prize

Nobel Prize winners in Chemistry

Carolyn Bertozzi, Barry Sharpless, Morten Meldal
"For the development of methods of click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry." 

Benjamin List, David Macmillan
"For the development of asymmetric organocatalysis".

Emmanuel Charpentier, Jennifer Dudna
"For the development of the CRISPR/Cas genome editing method".

John Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham, Akira Yoshino
"For the development of lithium-ion batteries."

Francis Arnold (1/2 prize)
"For the directed evolution of enzymes."
 George Smith, Sir Gregory Winter (1/4 prize each)
"For phage mapping of peptides and antibodies."

Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank, Richard Henderson 
"For the development of high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structure of biomolecules in solution."

Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir Fraser Stoddart, Bernard Feringa
"For the design and synthesis of molecular machines"

Thomas Lindahl, Paul Modric, Aziz Sankar
"For the study of DNA repair mechanisms."

Eric Betzig, Stefan Hell, William Merner
"For the development of ultra-high-resolution fluorescence microscopy."

Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt, Arie Warshel
"For creating multilevel models of complex chemical systems."

Robert Lefkowitz, Brian Filly
"For research on G-protein coupled receptors."

Dan Shechtman
"For the discovery of quasicrystals."

Richard Heck, Eiichi Nagishi, Akira Suzuki
"For palladium-catalyzed cross-combination reactions in organic synthesis".

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas Steitz, Ada Yonat
"For research on the structure and functions of the ribosome."

Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfi, Roger Qian
"For the discovery and development of green fluorescent protein."

Gerhard Ertl
"For the study of chemical processes on the surfaces of solids."

Roger Kornberg
"For the study of the mechanism of copying genetic information by cells."

Robert Grubbs, Richard Schrock, Yves Chauvin
"For his contribution to the development of the method of metathesis in organic synthesis."

Aaron Chehanover, Avram Gershko, Irwin Rose
"For the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation."

Peter Egr
"For the opening of the water channel."
Roderick McKinnon
"For studying the structure and mechanism of ion channels."

Kurt Wuterich (1/2 prize)
"For the development of the application of NMR spectroscopy to determine the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution."
John Fenn, Koichi Tanaka (1/4 prize each)
"For the development of methods of identification and structural analysis of biological macromolecules, and, in particular, for the development of methods of mass spectrometric analysis of biological macromolecules."

Barry Sharpless (1/2 award)
William Knowles, Rioji Noyori (1/4 prize each)
"For research used in the pharmaceutical industry – the creation of chiral catalysts for redox reactions."

Alan Heger, Alan McDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa
"For the discovery of conductivity in polymers."

Ahmed Zevale
"For the study of transition states arising during chemical reactions using femtosecond technology."

Walter Cohn
"For the development of the density functional theory".
John Pople
"For the development of computational methods of quantum chemistry."

Jens Skou (1/2 prize)
"For the discovery of the ion-transmitting enzyme."
Paul Boyer, John Walker (1/4 prize each)
"For elucidating the enzyme mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine phosphate."

Robert Curl, Harold Kroto, Richard Smellie
"For the discovery of fullerenes."

Paul Krutzen, Mario Molina, Sherwood Rowland
"For work on atmospheric chemistry, especially in terms of the processes of formation and destruction of the ozone layer."

George Ola
"For his contribution to carbon chemistry."

Carey Mullis
"For the invention of the polymerase chain reaction method."
Michael Smith
"For his fundamental contribution to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, locally oriented mutagenesis and its development for the study of proteins."

Rudolf Marcus
"For his contribution to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems."

Richard Ernst
"For his contribution to the development of the methodology of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy."

Elice James Corey
"For the development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis."

Sidney Altman, Thomas Robert Check
"For the discovery of the catalytic properties of ribonucleic acids."

Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michael
"For establishing the three-dimensional structure of the photosynthetic reaction center."

Donald James Crum, Jean Marie Lehn, Charles Pedersen
"For the development and application of molecules with structurally specific interactions of high selectivity."

Dudley Robert Herschbach, Lee Yang, John Charles Polanyi
"For his contribution to the development of research on the dynamics of elementary chemical processes."

Herbert Aaron Hauptman, Jerome Carle
"For outstanding achievements in the development of a direct method of decoding structures."

Robert Bruce Merrifield
"For the proposed methodology of chemical synthesis on solid matrices."

Henry Taube
"For studying the mechanisms of reactions with electron transfer, especially metal complexes, he was awarded a prize."

Aaron Klug
"For developing the method of crystallographic electron microscopy and clarifying the structure of biologically important nucleic acid–protein complexes."

Kenichi Fukui, Roald Hoffman
"For the development of the theory of chemical reactions".

Paul Berg (1/2 prize)
"For fundamental research on the biochemical properties of nucleic acids, especially recombinant DNA."
Walter Gilbert, Frederick Sanger (1/4 prize each)
"For fundamental research on the biochemical properties of nucleic acids, especially recombinant DNA."

Herbert Charles Brown, Georg Wittig
"For the development of new methods of organic synthesis of complex boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds."

Peter Dennis Mitchell
"For the contribution to the understanding of the process of biological energy transfer made through the creation of chemiosmotic theory."

Ilya Prigozhin
"For his work on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, especially for the theory of dissipative structures."

William Nunn Lipscomb
"For the study of the structure of boranes (borohydrites), clarifying the problems of chemical bonds."

John Workup Cornforth
"For the study of the stereochemistry of enzymatic catalysis reactions."
Vladimir Prelog
"For research in the field of stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions."

Paul John Florey
"For fundamental achievements in the field of theory and practice of physical chemistry of macromolecules".

Ernst Otto Fischer, Jeffrey Wilkinson
"For the innovative work done independently in the field of chemistry of organometallic, so-called sandwich compounds."

Christian Boehmer Anfinsen (1/2 prize)
"For his work on the study of ribonuclease, especially the relationship between the amino acid sequence and its biologically active enzymes."
Stanford Moore, William Howard Stein (1/4 prize each)
"For his contribution to clarifying the relationship between the chemical structure and the catalytic action of the active center of the ribonuclease molecule."

Gerhard Herzberg
"For his contribution to understanding the electronic structure and structure of molecules, especially free radicals."

Luis Federico Leloir
"For the discovery of the first sugar nucleotide and the study of its functions in the conversion of sugar and in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates."

Derek Harold Richard Burton, Odd Hassell
"For his contribution to the development of the conformational concept and its application in chemistry."

Lars Onsager
"For the discovery of reciprocity relations in irreversible processes named after him, which are of fundamental importance for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes."

Manfred Eigen (1/2 prize)
"For the research of extremely fast chemical reactions stimulated by an imbalance using very short pulses of energy."
Ronald George Rayford Norrish, George Porter
(1/4 premium each) "For their study of ultrafast chemical reactions by shifting the molecular equilibrium with a very short pulse."

Robert Sanderson Mulliken
"For fundamental work on chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules carried out using the method of molecular orbitals."

Robert Burns Woodward
"For outstanding contribution to the art of organic synthesis."

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
"For the determination of structures of biologically active substances with the help of X-rays."

Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta
"For the discovery of isotactic polypropylene".

Max Ferdinand Perutz, John Kodery Kendrew
"For research on the structure of globular proteins."

Melvin Calvin
"For the study of the assimilation of carbon dioxide by plants."

Willard Frank Libby
"For introducing the method of using carbon-14 to determine age in archaeology, geology, geophysics and other fields of science."

Yaroslav Geyrovsky
"For the discovery and development of polarographic methods of analysis."

Frederick Sanger
"For establishing the structures of proteins, especially insulin."

Alexander Todd
"For work on nucleotides and nucleotide coenzymes."

Cyril Norman Hinshelwood, Nikolai Nikolaevich Semenov
"For research in the field of the mechanism of chemical reactions."

Vincent du Vigneault
"For working with biologically active compounds, and above all for the first time the synthesis of polypeptide hormone."

Linus Carl Pauling
"For the study of the nature of the chemical bond and its application to determine the structure of compounds."

Hermann Staudinger
"For research in the field of chemistry of high-molecular substances."

Archer John Porter Martin, Richard Lawrence, Millington Sing
"For the discovery of the method of distributive chromatography."

Edwin Mattison Macmillan, Glenn Theodore Seaborg
"For discoveries in the field of chemistry of transuranic elements".

Otto Paul Hermann Diels, Kurt Alder
"For the discovery and development of diene synthesis".

William Gioc
"For his contribution to chemical thermodynamics, especially in its field, which studies the behavior of substances at extremely low temperatures."

Arne Thiselius
"For the study of electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for the discovery associated with the complex nature of serum proteins."

Robert Robinson
"For the research of plant products of great biological importance, especially alkaloids."

James Sumner (1/2 Award) "For the discovery of the phenomenon of crystallization of enzymes."
John Howard Northrop, Wendell Meredith Stanley (1/4 prize each)
"For obtaining pure viral proteins."

Artturi Ilmari Virtanen
"For research and achievements in the field of agriculture and nutrient chemistry, especially for the method of conservation of feed, he was awarded the prize."

1944 (awarded in 1945)
Otto Hahn
"For the discovery of the splitting of heavy nuclei."

1943 (awarded in 1944)
Gyorgy de Hevesy
"For the work on the use of isotopes as labeled atoms in the study of chemical processes."

1940: the prize was not awarded, the funds were included in the special fund of the section (2/3) and the Nobel Foundation (1/3).

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt
"For work on sex hormones."
Leopold Ruzichka
"For work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes."

1938 (awarded in 1939)
Richard Kuhn
"In recognition of the work he has done on carotenoids and vitamins."

Walter Norman Haworth
"For research on carbohydrates and vitamin C."
Paul Carrer
"For the study of carotenoids and flavins, as well as for the study of vitamins A and B2."

Peter Josef Wilhelm Debye
"For his contribution to the understanding of molecular structure in the course of studies of dipole phenomena and diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases."

Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie
"For the completed synthesis of new radioactive elements."

Harold Clayton Urey
"For the discovery of heavy hydrogen – deuterium, used to produce heavy water (moderator in nuclear reactors), as well as as an indicator of biochemical reactions in living tissue."

1933: the prize was not awarded, the funds were included in the special fund of the section.

Irving Langmuir
"For discoveries and research in the field of chemistry of surface phenomena."

Karl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius
"For services to the introduction and development of high-pressure methods in chemistry, which represents an epoch-making event in the field of chemical technology."

Hans Fischer
"For research on the construction of gemin and chlorophyll, especially for the synthesis of gemin."

Arthur Garden, Hans von Euler-Helpin
"For the study of sugar fermentation and fermentation enzymes."

Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus
"For work on the study of the structure of sterols and their relationship with the vitamin group."

Heinrich Otto Wieland (awarded in 1928)
"For the study of bile acids and the structure of many similar substances."

Theodor Svedberg
"For work in the field of dispersed systems."

Richard Adolf Sigmondi (awarded in 1926)
"For establishing the heterogeneous nature of colloidal solutions and for the methods developed in this regard, which are of fundamental importance in modern colloidal chemistry, since all manifestations of organic life are ultimately associated with the colloidal environment of protoplasm."

1924: the prize was not awarded, the funds were included in the special fund of the section.

Fritz Pregl
"For the invention of the method of microanalysis of organic substances."

Francis William Aston
"For the discovery of isotopes of a large number of non-radioactive elements made by him with the help of his own invented mass spectrograph and for formulating the rule of integers."

Frederick Soddy
"For his contribution to the chemistry of radioactive substances and for the study of the origin and nature of isotopes."

1920 (awarded in 1921)
Walter Hermann Nernst
"In recognition of his work on thermodynamics."

1918 (awarded in 1919)
Fritz Haber
"For the synthesis of ammonia from its constituent elements."

1916, 1917 and 1919: the prize was not awarded, the funds are included in the special fund of the section.

Richard Martin Willstetter
"For the research of coloring substances of the plant world, especially chlorophyll."

1914 (awarded in 1915)
Theodore William Richards
"For the precise determination of the atomic masses of a large number of chemical elements."

Alfred Werner
"For his work on the nature of bonds of atoms in molecules in the field of inorganic chemistry."

Victor Grignard
"For the discovery of the Grignard reagent, which contributed to the development of organic chemistry."
Paul Sabatier
"For the method of hydrogenation of organic compounds in the presence of fine metals, which dramatically stimulated the development of organic chemistry."

Marie Curie
"For outstanding achievements in the development of chemistry: the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element."

Otto Wallach
"In recognition of his achievements in the development of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, as well as for being the first to carry out work in the field of alicyclic compounds."

Wilhelm Ostwald
"In recognition of the work he has done on catalysis, as well as for his research on the basic principles of controlling chemical equilibrium and reaction rates."

Ernest Rutherford
"For his research in the field of the decay of elements in the chemistry of radioactive substances."

Eduard Buchner
"For the research work on biological chemistry and the discovery of extracellular fermentation".

Henri Moissan
"For obtaining the element of fluorine and introducing an electric furnace named after him into laboratory and industrial practice."

Adolf von Bayer
"For services to the development of organic chemistry and the chemical industry through work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds."

William Ramsay
"In recognition of his discovery of various inert gases in the atmosphere and the determination of their place in the periodic table."

Svante August Arrhenius
"The prize was awarded as a recognition of the special significance of his theory of electrolytic dissociation for the development of chemistry."

Hermann Emil Fischer
"For experiments on the synthesis of substances with saccharide and purine groups."

Jacob Hendrik Van't-Goff
"In recognition of the great importance of discovering the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions."

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