30 April 2009

Carbon-14: defuse the bomb!

Public charitable environmental organization,
member of the International Socio-Ecological Union, a member of the Coalition Clean Baltic
The registered Office of Justice of the Leningrad region on 31 January 1997, registration number 605,
I 93/7, 188544 Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad region, tel./Fax: (81369)72991;
email: info@greenworld.org.ru

TO: G. G. Onishchenko, head of the Federal service for supervision in the sphere of consumer rights protection and human welfare
Address: 127994, Moscow, Vadkovsky lane 18/20
Re: the Tightening of rules on radiocarbon
No. 1104-1/2009
11 APR 2009
Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad region


Dear Gennady Grigorievich!

We urge You to initiate the adoption of more stringent restrictions limit annual income (GWP) of biologically significant radiocarbon 14C in the human body.

Recorded today in the radiation safety standards NRB-99 GWP 14is 6,3X105 Bq/year. This means, for example, the validity of the 12-fold increase of its receipt of food in comparison with that which takes place in a "clean area" of Moscow [1].

At the same time, we know that one of the main reasons for the prohibition of nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere was projected increase in deaths of people in connection with the increase in the concentration of radiocarbon in the atmosphere and its supply in the human body and the biological chains. Peak concentrations in the atmosphere "bomb" 14With peaked in 1965, when its value exceeded "only" 1.7 times the concentration of atmospheric radiocarbon before the tests.

The assessment made by the academician A. D. Sakharov in 1958 showed that this hurting millions of people [2]. Later it became known that the expected biological consequences of increasing concentrations of radiocarbon was even underestimated [3].

And yet, despite this, has a GWP of 14With NRB-99, allow 20 times bigger high concentrations of radiocarbon in food compared to its natural concentration levels in the biosphere. Because of this, for example, is it permissible to consume food grown in the 15-kilometer zone from the MAYAK (Chelyabinsk oblast). They contain 7 times more powerful than similar products obtained outside the contaminated zone [1]. That is such concentrations are considered "valid" (!), inevitably, as shown by special studies [4], leads to a multiple excess of the concentration of 14C in the bodies of people living in the vicinity of the enterprise "MAYAK".

Permitted now GWP 14With NRB-99 significantly higher than those taken into account by policy-makers when deciding on the prohibition of nuclear tests and that really led in time to the increase in mortality, for example, in Denmark and the other largely affluent countries [5]. It is thus clear that the need for stricter NRB-99 in part radically reduce the permissible level of income of radiocarbon with food.

Meantime, it is important to warn the population of the territories adjacent to nuclear power plants and other enterprises, with air emissions 14, about the dangers of farming in these areas. Consumption of products obtained in this way, may cost health and life, both by the manufacturers, if they eat, and loyal customers of this product, regardless of where they live.

Also, do not be accurate and risk assessment for habitat for emergency situations of the RBMK-1000 reactors.

To date, the treatment included the necessary calculations and references, confirming its relevance (See Annexes 1 and 2).

Please reply to the offer email to a 93/7 Sosnovy Bor 188544, Leningrad region.

German Alexander, Ph. D., an expert of the GREEN WORLD
Bodrov Oleg, Chairman Of The Board Of The Green World

Applications to the open letter to the GREEN WORLD to the chief sanitary doctor of Russia Gennady Onishchenko.
Prepared By The German Alexander Mikhailovich.

Appendix 1. For more explanation letter.

NRB-99 sets the limit of annual income (GWP) 14With the diet, equal to 6,3X105 Bq/year, based on the review of the operation of this isotope is probably only as an internal source of β-radiation.

Studies [1] showed that for the year with to the diet of adults living in 15-kilometer zone from the plant "MAYAK", can enter a total of up to 2,06Х105BC radiocarbon. In particular, radiocarbon natural origin nutritional way comes (2,6-3,6)X104 Bq/year. Thus, depending on the composition of the food basket, but rather the degree of dilution of the products obtained away radiocarbon areas, there is a case of a 7-fold excess of the proceeds of carbon-14 relative to the natural level.

The authors of the study [4] found that the content of radiocarbon in the body of people living in the vicinityof the enterprise "MAYAK", actually in ~3 times higher than the natural level. According to 100 samples (10 of organs and tissues from 10 people) the average content of carbon-14 in the human body is ~1440 BC, and the specific activity of carbon is – 896±33 Bq/kg (samples taken at the local Bureau of forensic medical examination at autopsy of people living in close proximity to businesses and not dead from disease and injury). Taking into account the values of the specific activity of carbon-14 in the body from the background of the presence of radiocarbon – 313 Bq/kg With actually measured in the "clean" area of Moscow, it is possible to determine the relative magnitude of the excess as 896/313 = 2,9.

Try to understand what is in fact a threat to the health and human life, eating foods that contain many times more powerful, relative to the natural level? For this we turn to recent history of nuclear testing in the atmosphere.

In his article [2] in 1958, Andrei Sakharov, has shown that the radioactive carbon produced by the explosion, only one of the hydrogen bomb, the power of one megaton, cancer, genetic disorders and other diseases affected about ten thousand people. Thus, according to this assessment, the explosion of the Soviet hydrogen bomb with a capacity of 58 megatons, held in 1961 (which is about 10% of the capacity of all atmospheric nuclear explosions) predicted death or serious illness of about half a million people. How assessment Sakharov similar projections of other scientists from around the world have withstood the test of time?

In a brief Appendix to the publication of this article in 1991, the journal "Science & global security" [3] the comparison of the adopted A. D. Sakharov predictions on biological effects of radiocarbon with modern data. Made by A. D. Sakharov assess the dose seems to be a bit overpriced, but the forecast effect of the biological impact of radiocarbon was slightly underestimated (!).

The rise of the radiocarbon content in food products after the nuclear tests of the 50-ies and 60-ies of the last century was "only" a maximum of 1965, more than 1.7 the natural background level (see Fig.1). At the same time, NRB-99 allows HGP 6,3X105 Bq/year, which is 12 times more.

For clarity, the assessments of the impact of population exposure from splash of radiocarbon content in food is 1.7 times from the natural background, you can use the results of a retrospective study of historical dynamics of mortality of the population. These materials are posted on the website http://gealeksandr.narod.ru. Especially clearly the effects can be seen in the example of the population of the countries with a high level of life, where natural mortality is closest to natural background due to fundamental causes of human aging.

Thus, in Fig.2, zaimstvovanii from [6], shows the historical dynamics of mortality 67-year-old population of Denmark. When comparing Fig.1 and 2 shows that after increasing the content of radiocarbon in the biosphere, after a while, there was a surge of natural mortality. This can be seen in varying degrees of severity in all age groups of the population of Denmark, as well as in other countries with a high standard of living and a stable socio-political system. You can verify this yourself by reading other materials posted on the aforementioned site.

It is obvious that an increase in the content of radiocarbon in the food consumed by a person by at least 1.7 times does not remain harmless to health and is a real threat to his life. Moreover, if such an increase is 3 or more times, which is quite acceptable for NRB-99.

Fig. 1. Comparison of radiocarbon content of cellulose in annual tree rings from various regions with atmospheric radiocarbon data for the northern hemisphere. Fig.2. Dynamics of natural mortality of the Danish population at the age of 67 years

Lines 1,2,3 – men; lines 4,5,6 – women; 1 and 4 – mortality; 2 and 5 – the probable course of the mortality curves after 2002; 3 and 6 – the main trend of historical mortality dynamics

P.S. [7] "Individual health indicators of both persons directly employed in particularly hazardous industries and the population of adjacent localities are deteriorating. In the structure of occupational morbidity of employees of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation, 58 percent are diseases caused by exposure to radioactive substances. Over the past 5 years, the increase in the incidence of malignant neoplasms among workers employed at individual enterprises of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy amounted to 28 percent, among all persons serviced by the Federal Administration – by 23 percent (this exceeds the growth rate in Russia)…
The general health indicators of the population living in the areas where particularly dangerous enterprises are located are also unfavorable. The total mortality of the population of closed administrative-territorial entities, on the territory of which the enterprises of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy are located, has increased one and a half times in recent years, and 1994 was characterized by a negative natural increase in the population. The prevalence of congenital anomalies among children under the age of 14 living in BUT is twice as high as in Russia."

Appendix 2.
List of literature1. Ponomareva R.P. Formation of a focus of increased carbon-14 content in natural objects under conditions of a long-term local emission source.

Online magazine "Notes of a radioecologist"
2. Sakharov A.D. Radioactive carbon of nuclear explosions and non-threshold biological effects. Atomic Energy 1958; vol. 4; No. 6: 576-580.
3. Sakharov A.D. Radioactive carbon of nuclear explosions and non-threshold biological effects./ Science and Universal Security. Vol. 1, No. 4, 1991, pp.3-8.
4. Demin S.N. The problem of carbon-14 in the Area of the Mayak Software. – Issues of radiation safety, No. 1, 2000, 61-66 p.
5. Germansky A.M. Atmospheric radiocarbon and mortality in Denmark. 2005. Online magazine 'Commercial Biotechnology
6. Levchenko V. Radiocarbon and absolute chronology: notes on the topic.
7. Federal target program "Medical and sanitary support of the modern stage of development of the nuclear energy complex and other particularly dangerous industries in the conditions of missile, nuclear and chemical disarmament, as well as conversion and development of new technologies in 1997-1998" (approved by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated February 22, 1997 N 191)

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