24 June 2010

Human proteome: Russia got chromosome No. 18

In decoding the human proteome, Russia will not do withoutOlga Belokoneva, "Science and Life"
The international project "Human Genome" was completed without the participation of Russian scientific organizations.

The successor of this project was the even more ambitious project "Human Proteome". Times are changing, and today domestic researchers are participating in the international project "Human Proteome" on a par with developed countries.

After the complete decoding of the genome, identification (determination of the structure and functions) and cataloging of all proteins of the human body were on the agenda. There are 26 thousand genes and several million protein molecules in the human body. Genes can create dozens of different protein variations, and each of them can be modified. All these proteins are synthesized in the body at different times in human organs and tissues. The proteome is a kind of embodiment of genetic information in specific functional systems.

To determine such a number of proteins, international cooperation is simply necessary. It is gratifying that this time Russia is taking part in this international project. The head performer of the Russian part of the program "Proteomics in Medicine and Biotechnology" is the V.N. Orekhovich Research Institute of Biomedical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences under the leadership of Alexander Archakov.

(Pictured is A.I. Archakov at the closing of the 5th International Conference "Genomics, Proteomics, Bioinformatics and Nanobiotechnology for Medicine", June 2010, St. Petersburg.)

It was decided that each participating country defines proteins encoded by certain chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of chromosomes (autosomes) and one pair of sex chromosomes (gonosomes). As a result, Russia got the proteome of the 18th human chromosome. Russian scientists involved in the project need to "scan" 30 thousand proteins encoded by 286 genes of this chromosome. Diseases such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, diabetes, hepatitis B, colorectal cancer are associated with defects in the 18th chromosome. Determination of the proteins of the 18th chromosome will allow to determine the parameters of the norm in healthy people and create new diagnostic systems for various diseases, primarily oncological.

Today, the volume of the global genomic market is approximately one trillion US dollars per year, that is, the results of fundamental research have become a commodity in demand on the market. Alexander Archakov believes that Russia's participation in the international Human Proteome project will allow our country to use the fruits of fundamental research on an equal basis with other countries to develop its own pharmaceutical, medical and biotechnological industries.

Portal "Eternal youth" http://vechnayamolodost.ru24.06.2010

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