Physiology and Medicine Award
Nobel Prize Laureates in Physiology and Medicine
"For discoveries in the field of extinct hominid genomes and human evolution."
David Julius, Ardem Pataputyan
"For the discovery of temperature and touch receptors."
Harvey Alter, Michael Houghton, Charles Rice.
"For his contribution to the study of hepatitis C".
William Kaelin Jr., Peter Ratcliffe, Gregg Semenza
"For research on how cells sense and adapt to changes in oxygen levels in the environment."
James Ellison, Tasku Honjo
"For the discovery of cancer therapy by removing the limitation of the immune response."
Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael Young
"For the discovery of the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms."
"For revealing the mechanisms of autophagy."
William Campbell, Satoshi Omura (1/2 Prize)
"For discoveries in the field of combating parasite worms."
Yuu Tu (1/2 award) "For discoveries in the field of malaria control".
John O'Keefe, Mae Britt Moser, Edward Moser
"For work on the cell biology of the brain."
James Rothman, Randy Sheckman, Thomas Sudhof
"For discoveries in the field of regulation of vesicular transport in cells."
John Gurdon, Shinya Yamanaka
"For his work in the field of developmental biology and the production of induced stem cells."
Jules Hoffman (1/4 prize), Bruce Bettler (1/4 prize)
"For work on the study of the activation of innate immunity."
Ralph Steinman (1/2 prize, posthumously)
"For the discovery of dendritic cells and the study of their significance for acquired immunity."
"For the technology of artificial insemination in vitro".
Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider, Jack Shostak
"For the discovery of mechanisms for the protection of chromosomes by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase."
Harald zur Hausen, Francoise Barre-Sinussi, Luc Montagnier
"For the discovery of the human papillomavirus causing cervical cancer" and "For the discovery of HIV".
Mario Capecci, Martin Evans, Oliver Smithies
"For discovering the principles of introducing specific gene modifications in mice using embryonic stem cells."
Andrew Fire, Craig Mello
"For the discovery of RNA interference - the effect of quenching the activity of certain genes."
Barry Marshall, Robin Warren
"For work on the study of the effect of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori on the occurrence of gastritis and ulcers of the stomach and duodenum."
Richard Excel, Linda Buck
"For research on olfactory receptors and the organization of the olfactory organ system."
Paul Lauterbourg, Peter Mansfield
"For the invention of the magnetic resonance imaging method."
Sidney Brenner, Robert Horwitz, John Sulston
"For discoveries in the field of genetic regulation of the development of human organs."
Leland Hartwell, Timothy Hunt, Paul Ners
"For the discovery of key regulators of the cell cycle."
Arvid Karlsson, Paul Greengard, Eric Kandel
"For discoveries related to the transmission of signals in the nervous system."
"For the detection of signaling amino acid sequences in protein molecules responsible for the targeted transport of proteins in the cell."
Robert Ferchgott, Luis Ignarro, Ferid Murad
"For discovering the role of nitric oxide as a signaling molecule in the regulation of the cardiovascular system."
"For the discovery of prions, a new biological principle of infection."
Peter Doherty, Rolf Zinkernagel
"For discoveries in the field of the human immune system, in particular, its ability to detect cells affected by the virus."
Edward Lewis, Christiane Nyuslein-Folhard, Eric Vishaus
"For discoveries concerning genetic control in the early stages of embryonic development."
Alfred Gilman, Martin Rodbell
"For the discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transmission in the cell."
Richard Roberts, Phillip Sharp
"For the discovery, independently of each other, of the discontinuous structure of the gene."
Edmond Fisher, Edwin Krebs
"For discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a mechanism of biological regulation."
Erwin Neher, Bert Zachman
"For discoveries concerning the functions of single ion channels in cells."
Joseph Murray, Edward Donnall Thomas
"For discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of diseases."
John Michael Bishop, Harold Warmus
"For the discovery of the cellular nature of retroviral oncogenes."
James Black, Gertrude Elyon, George Hitchings
"For the discovery of important principles of drug therapy."
"For the discovery of the genetic principle for the generation of a variety of antibodies."
Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini
"In recognition of discoveries of crucial importance for the disclosure of mechanisms regulating the growth of cells and organs."
Michael Brown, Joseph Goldstein
"For outstanding discoveries concerning cholesterol metabolism and the treatment of cholesterol disorders in the blood."
Niels Erne, Georg Koehler, Cesar Milstein
"For the discovery and development of principles for the production of monoclonal antibodies using hybrids."
"For the discovery of transposing genetic systems."
Sune Bergstrom, Bengt Samuelson, John Wayne
"For discoveries concerning prostaglandins and biologically active substances close to them."
"For discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres."
David Hubel, Torsten Wiesel
"For discoveries concerning the principles of information processing in neural structures."
Baruch Benacerraf, Jean Dosse, George Snell
"For discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immune responses."
Allan Cormack, Godfrey Hounsfield
"For the development of computed tomography."
Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, Hamilton Smith
"For the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application in molecular genetics."
Roger Guillemin, Andrew Shally
"For discoveries related to the secretion of peptide hormones of the brain."
Rosalyn Sasmen Yalou
"For the development of radioimmunological methods for the determination of peptide hormones."
Baruch Blumberg, Carlton Gaydushek
"For discoveries concerning new mechanisms of origin and spread of infectious diseases."
David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco, Howard Temin
"For discoveries concerning the interaction between oncogenic viruses and the genetic material of the cell."
Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, George Palade
"For discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell."
Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nicolaas Tinbergen
"For discoveries related to the creation and establishment of models of individual and group behavior of animals."
Gerald Edelman, Rodney Porter
"For discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies."
"For discoveries concerning the mechanisms of action of hormones."
Bernard Katz, Ulf von Oiler, Julius Axelrod
"For discoveries concerning humoral transmitters in nerve endings and the mechanisms of their storage, isolation and inactivation."
Max Delbruck, Alfred Hershey, Salvador Luria
"For discoveries concerning the mechanism of replication and the genetic structure of viruses."
Robert Holley, Har Gobind of the Koran, Marshall Nirenberg
"For deciphering the genetic code and its role in protein synthesis."
Ragnar Granit, Holden Hartline, George Wald
"For discoveries related to the primary physiological and chemical visual processes occurring in the eye."
Frances Peyton Rouse
"For the discovery of oncogenic viruses."
Charles Brenton Huggins
"For discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostate cancer."
Francois Jacob, Andre Lviv, Jacques Mono
"For discoveries concerning the genetic control of the synthesis of enzymes and viruses."
Konrad Bloch, Theodor Linen
"For discoveries concerning the mechanisms and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism."
John Eccles, Alan Hodgkin, Andrew Fielding Huxley
"For discoveries concerning ionic mechanisms of excitation and inhibition in peripheral and central areas of nerve cells."
Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins
"For discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and their significance for the transmission of information in living systems."
Gyorgy von Bekeshi
"For the discovery of the physical mechanisms of perception of irritation by the snail."
Macfarlane Burnett, Peter Brian Medawar
"For the discovery of artificial immune tolerance (tolerance)".
Severo Ochoa, Arthur Kornberg
"For the discovery of the mechanisms of biological synthesis of ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acids."
George Beadle, Edward Tatem
"For discoveries concerning the role of genes in specific biochemical processes."
"For discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of genetic material in bacteria."
"For discoveries concerning synthetic compounds that block the action of certain substances of the body, and for the discovery of their effect on the vascular system and muscles."
Andre Kurnan, Werner Forsman, Dickinson Richards
"For discoveries concerning cardiac catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system."
"For discoveries concerning the nature and mechanism of action of oxidative enzymes."
John Enders, Thomas Weller, Frederick Robbins
"For discovering the ability of the polio virus to grow in cultures of various tissues."
Hans Adolf Krebs
"For the discovery of the citric acid cycle."
Fritz Albert Lipman
"For the discovery of coenzyme A and its significance for intermediate stages of metabolism."
"For the discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective in the treatment of tuberculosis."
"For discoveries related to yellow fever and the fight against it."
Edward Kendall, Tadeusz Reichstein, Philip Hench
"For discoveries concerning hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects."
"For the discovery of the functional organization of the intermediate brain as a coordinator of the activity of internal organs."
"For the discovery of the therapeutic effects of leukotomy in some mental illnesses."
Paul Hermann Muller
"For the discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison."
Carl Ferdinand Corey, Gertie Theresa Corey
"For the discovery of the catalytic transformation of glycogen."
Bernardo Alberto Usai
"For discovering the role of hormones of the anterior pituitary gland in glucose metabolism."
Herman Joseph Moeller
"For the discovery of the appearance of mutations under the influence of X-ray irradiation."
Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, Howard Walter Florey
"For the discovery of penicillin and its healing effects in various infectious diseases."
Joseph Erlanger, Herbert Spencer Gasser
"For discoveries related to the highly differentiated functions of individual nerve fibers."
1943 (awarded in 1944)
Henrik Karl Peter Dam (awarded in 1944)
"For the discovery of vitamin K."
Eduard Adalbert Doisi
"For the discovery of the chemical structure of vitamin K".
1940-1942: the prize was not awarded, the funds were included in the special fund of the section (2/3) and the Nobel Foundation (1/3).
"For the discovery of the antibacterial effect of prontosil."
1938 (awarded in 1939)
"For the discovery of the role of sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration."
Albert St. Gyorgy
"For discoveries in the field of biological oxidation processes, especially related to the study of vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid."
Henry Dale, Otto Levy
"For discoveries related to the chemical transmission of nerve impulses."
"For the discovery of organizing effects in embryonic development."
George Whipple, George Minot, William Murphy
"For discoveries related to the use of the liver in the treatment of pernicious anemia."
Thomas Hunt Morgan
"For discoveries related to the role of chromosomes in heredity."
Charles Scott Sherrington, Edgar Douglas Adrian
"For discoveries concerning the functions of neurons."
Otto Heinrich Warburg
"For the discovery of the nature and mechanism of action of the respiratory enzyme."
"For the discovery of human blood groups."
"For his contribution to the discovery of vitamins."
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
"For the discovery of vitamins that stimulate growth processes."
"The establishment of the transmitter of typhoid fever – the dress lice."
"For the discovery of the therapeutic effect of malaria infection in the treatment of progressive paralysis."
1926 (awarded in 1927)
Johannes Fibiger, "For the discovery of carcinoma caused by Spiroptera".
1925: the prize was not awarded, the funds were included in the special fund of the section.
"For the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram."
Frederick Bunting, John McLeod
"For the discovery of insulin."
1922 (awarded in 1923)
"For discoveries in the field of heat generation in the muscle."
"For the discovery of a close relationship between the process of oxygen absorption and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle."
1921: the prize was not awarded, the funds were included in the special fund of the section.
"For the discovery of the mechanism of regulation of the lumen of capillaries."
1919 (awarded in 1920)
"For discoveries related to immunity."
1915-1918: the prize was not awarded, the funds were included in the special fund of the section.
1914 (awarded in 1915)
"For work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus."
"In recognition of his work on anaphylaxis."
"For recognition of work on vascular suture and transplantation of blood vessels and organs."
"For the work on the diopter of the eye."
"For the contribution to the study of cell chemistry made by the research of proteins, including nucleic substances."
Emil Theodor Kocher
"For his work in the field of physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland."
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, Paul Ehrlich
"For his work on immunity."
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran
"For the study of the role of protozoa in diseases."
Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramon y Cajal
"In recognition of works on the structure of the nervous system."
"For research and discoveries concerning the treatment of tuberculosis."
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
"For work on the physiology of digestion."
Nils Ruberg Finzen
"In recognition of his achievements in the treatment of diseases – especially lupus – with the help of concentrated light radiation, which opened up new broad horizons for medical science."
"For his work on malaria, in which he showed how the pathogen enters the body, and thereby laid the foundation for further successful research in this area and the development of methods to combat malaria."
Emil Adolf von Behring
"For the work on serum therapy, mainly for its use in the treatment of diphtheria, which opened new paths in medical science and gave doctors a victorious weapon against disease and death."