About the reality of the Methuselah Century: Part 2
(The end. The first part of the article is available here)
To cancel age
Mikhail Kirov, Mednovosti
Development of the modern science of aging, and why it is increasingly understood as a process of programmed self-destruction of the body? Is it possible to block this program? The areas in which medicine can be used the same technology? The answers to these questions in an interview with the Creator of the project Skulachev Ions, a developer of anti-aging therapy based on SkQ1 ions of Vladimir Petrovich Skulachev (photo Svetlana Skulachev).
The attitude of the scientific community to Your theory is gradually changing...
But now, in may, was published the results, confirming different positions for our hypothesis. One of them is from Dong Shen Kay (Dongsheng Cai) – Chinese working in new York. In his work we are talking about that part of our hypothesis, which speaks of "great biological clock", which counts the beginning of aging for different systems and organs. Most likely, in his youth, a ban on aging that gradually abolished genetically predetermined program. Accordingly, there should be a General signal for aging and secondary signals to specific tissues and organs. And that Kay found one of these secondary signals – gonadotropin-releasing hormone produced in the hypothalamus. Its function is simple – run the synthesis of gonadotropin in the pituitary gland. As it turned out, the aging mice develop gonadotropin-releasing hormone inhibited the microglial cells is the phagocytes of the brain. With age, they begin to produce certain proteins that attack the neurons of the hypothalamus, forming hormone. And if that chain lock, a number of key signs of aging does not develop. Furthermore, subcutaneous administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone leads to a partial conversion of aging.
And other works?
Before we talk about them, we need to clarify that in our project we are not only aging, but in General the so-called counter-productive genetic programs that lead to premature death of the individual, apparently in the interests of the conservation of the species and its further evolution. To refer to all of these processes, we use the term "phenoptosis" – he, at my request, came up with a distinguished philologist, my friend, now, unfortunately, deceased Mikhail Gasparov. We are talking about the fact that the suicide of the body by self-poisoning with toxic forms of oxygen produced in the mitochondria, can be used in different situations. Slow variant – aging. Quick – various forms of sudden death after stress. There's a terrible law: if the body on some biochemical parameters out of limits, then he must destroy himself.
Can you give examples?
Septic shock. It is called lipopolysaccharide, which is part of the cell wall of gram negative bacteria. The bacteria itself does not use it to fight with the body, but the body will recognize it by this substance. And this recognition leads to massive inflammation in various parts of the body, the violation of permeability of blood vessels, visceral – it all grows like a snowball, and the person dies within a few days. The problem is that it does not depend on the aggressiveness of bacteria. You can enter rats bare lipopolysaccharide – and this will also lead to the death of animals. It is considered that happens too strong reaction of the immune system. But I believe that such a well-organized death should be reason need.
To prevent the epidemic. The first symptom of septic shock – a terrible weakness, a complete inability to move. The individual does not have coped with bacteria and it is better to die in order not to infect others. And some lab research suggests that the self-destruct mechanism here is the same as in aging. And then our ions also help in the experiments in the control group were killed and 80% of animals with similar pathologies, and among those who received SkQ1, the survival rate was 100%. I met with resuscitation – they have a huge interest in the project, because now effective means of dealing with this condition is very small.
Another such mechanism is devoted to an articlepublished by the researcher Stephanie Vogel (Stefanie Vogel). It shows that in the inflammatory response in severe influenza involves the same proteins, and in septic shock. Sepsis but without bacteria. Previously, we assumed that there are similar mechanisms, but now this situation has been proven experimentally.
And finally the third workaccomplished by our competitor, the British Michael Murphy (Michael P Murphy).He invented the first Skulachev ions combine with the antioxidant synthesized molecule MitoQ and tried to treat her Parkinson's disease. Nothing happened, as to its substance turned out to be very difficult to define the therapeutic dose. This time Murphy also used our ion, but attached to it is not an antioxidant, but a poison. The result was the Union, directed acting on mitochondria, temporarily disable an enzyme required for the generation of reactive oxygen species. However, it quickly decomposes into its component parts and excreted from the body. And, as it turned out, the impact is very beneficial in myocardial infarction. The area of myocardial damage in experimental rats treated with this substance decreased three times! That is, Murphy revealed that myocardial runs the same program of self-destruction, which acts through mitochondria. And temporary disruption of the respiratory chain in the mitochondria in the affected area contrary to expectations may prove to be beneficial and not detrimental.
Refer to the existing practical results of Your work.
When I submitted my project to the investors, then immediately warned: aging we can be, and will not cure, but the Burr will definitely help you! And now we have something to brag about.
Last year, the Russian market was brought fundamentally new ophthalmic drug based on SkQ1 for the treatment of dry eye syndrome senile diseases considered incurable. Drops containing SkQ1 as the active principle, led to disappearance of all symptoms in 60% of patients in the Institute of Eye diseases. Helmholtz, after three weeks of treatment. Now research is ongoing in eight clinics in Russia and two in Ukraine. There is reason to think that the positive effect while a more prolonged use of SkQ1 can be even greater.
Very often skeptics ask: instead of whether the substance of intervening in such fundamental processes at the cellular level, to possess oncogenic properties?
On the contrary, it can treat some cancers, we found in experiments on animals. But no data oncogenetic SkQ in the course of our, and independent research has been received. There are two aspects. First, the very low therapeutic concentration SkQ – thanks to the direction of action of the substance is effective in minute doses. And second – it fairly quickly breaks down in the body. Same Murphy showed that the actual Skulachev ion is introduced into the body, and then excreted in the urine in unchanged form, with nothing interacting. And the second component, plasticine, every day we get together with plant food. In General, there is no reason to even theoretically assume any toxic effects.
How are things going with the international recognition of these achievements?
Now begins the process of registration of our medicines in the United States. Because clinical studies that should be conducted in America, it is very expensive, we started with orphan diseases – uveitis. This will reduce the number of participants, and, consequently, costs. Uveitis is an extremely unpleasant condition in which the tissue of the eye to be targeted by its own immune system. It is treated with large doses of steroid hormones with a very serious undesirable effects. Now there are three independent laboratories in Minneapolis, Andover and Sunny Vale (USA) our experiments performed on animals earlier in Russia have already been confirmed.
In what other areas are you planning to use SkQ1?Clinical trials on glaucoma and cataract, which took place in Russia, have already been completed.
The results are being prepared for publication. In the near future we are going to get permission from the Ministry of Health to study SkQ1 for the treatment of macular degeneration. There is hope to complete this process in the winter of this year. It should be noted that initially the Ministry met our project with great skepticism. The results are too unusual… But, fortunately, we rely on the principles of evidence-based medicine, and we can always explain how and why our drug works. Our project is a search precedent. If we cure some incurable diseases as a result, and we do not cure aging, I will consider that the project has taken place. But the most important thing is to show that work in this direction can be carried out, that it is funded, published in good journals, and that quite serious people are doing this: President of the Swedish Academy of Sciences B. Cannon, Nobel laureates G. Blobel and A. Chehanover, Rector of Moscow State University Academician V.A. Sadovnichy and his group from the Moscow State University Faculty of Mechanics, President Russian Gerontological Society V.N. Anisimov. Other project participants include scientists from Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Germany, and the USA. The SkQ preparation for oral administration has already been obtained and tested on animals. The other day we are submitting an application to our Ministry of Health for clinical trials of SkQ as a remedy for one of the senile diseases. That's where it turns out whether the SkQ drug prolongs youth, as it does in our experiments on laboratory mice and rats.
Portal "Eternal youth" http://vechnayamolodost.ru01.07.2013